Natural Language Understanding Wiki

Main ref: Zhu and Ghahramani (2002)[1]

From Abney (2008)[2]: "The idea has arisen in many guises; for example, under the rubric spreading activation it can be traced back at least to a 1968 paper by Quillian [184]."


  • WSD: Niu et al. (2005)[3]
  • Coreference resolution
    • Noun-phrase anaphricity: Zhou and Kong (2011)[4]
  • Relation extraction: Chen et al. (2006a)[5], Chen et al. (2006b)[6]


  1. Zhu, X., & Ghahramani, Z. (2002). Learning from labeled and unlabeled data with label propagation. CMU CALD Tech Report, (CMU-CALD-02-107).
  2. Abney, S. (2008). Semisupervised Learning for Computational Linguistics.
  3. Niu, Z.-Y., Ji, D.-H., & Tan, C. L. (2005). Word Sense Disambiguation Using Label Propagation Based Semi-supervised Learning. In Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting on Association for Computational Linguistics (pp. 395–402). Stroudsburg, PA, USA: Association for Computational Linguistics.
  4. Guo-Dong Zhou, Fang Kong. 2011. Learning Noun Phrase Anaphoricity in Coreference Resolution via Label Propagation. Journal of Computer Science and Technology 26:1, 34-44.
  5. Chen, J., Ji, D., Tan, C., … Z. N. the 21st I. C. on, & 2006, U. (2006a). Relation extraction using label propagation based semi-supervised learning. In Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computational Linguistics and 44th Annual Meeting of the ACL (pp. 129–136). Retrieved from
  6. Chen, J., Ji, D., Tan, C., NAACL, Z. N. the, Short, C. V., & 2006, U. (2006b). Semi-supervised relation extraction with label propagation. In Proceedings of the Human Language Technology Conference of the North American Chapter of the ACL (pp. 25–28). Retrieved from