Natural Language Understanding Wiki

In cases involving hypothetical event, the effect can precede the cause. Mirza and Tonelli (2014)[1] found one such case in their Causal TimeBank (among 300 or so cases):

“But some analysts questioned how much of an impact the retirement package will have, because few jobs will end up being eliminated.”

low inter-annotator agreement?



Penn Discourse Treebank in English

(Prasad et al., 2007) and the CSTNews corpus in

Brazilian Portuguese (Aleixo and Pardo, 2008).

Because corpus:

Dunietz et al. (2017)[2]: "Several annotation schemes have addressed elements of causal language. Verb resources such as VerbNet (Schuler, 2005) and PropBank (Palmer et al., 2005) include verbs of causation. Likewise, preposition schemes (e.g., Schneider et al., 2015, 2016) include some purpose- and explanation-related senses."


From Ponti and Korhonen (2017): "Discourse-level causation is expressed explicitly through verbs (e.g. to cause or to enable) (Wolff, 2007) or adverbial markers, either inter-clausal (e.g. because) or inter-sentential (e.g. indeed). These markers are often ambiguous. Moreover, causation is not necessarily explicit: it can be entailed by the speakers and inferred by the listeners only through world knowledge (Grivaz, 2012)."

Psycholinguistics: Implicit causation verbs Carramazza et al.


  1. Mirza, Paramita, and Sara Tonelli. "An Analysis of Causality between Events and its Relation to Temporal Information." In COLING, pp. 2097-2106. 2014.
  2. Dunietz, J., Levin, L., & Carbonell, J. (2017). The BECauSE Corpus 2 . 0 : Annotating Causality and Overlapping Relations, (3), 95–104.